Friday, 11 November 2022

Afro Leo

2022 Crammer® Recordings - content for you!

This year’s Crammer® event hosted by Adams & Adams in late October attracted over 250 attendees and is the largest legal conference of its type in Africa. It’s an annual event designed to distill a year’s worth of legal content (largely intellectual property related) into a single morning through short, sharp presentations. This year’s keynote speaker was Kimberley Taylor an inspiring, young businessperson who has created Loop, a groundbreaking logistics company, and Stephen Key, a renowned, US-based inventor and author who is passionate about helping others create value out of their innovations through inventRight.

The recordings have been made available and are now shared with you by Afro-IP. Enjoy!

Main Conference Room

Adams & Adams Crammer™ 2022 Case Law Review - Panel Discussion

Plenary Speakers: Kimberley Taylor and Stephen Key (click on links for presentations)

Breakaway Room 1

Adams & Adams Crammer™ 2022 High maintenance – Intellectual property laws and regulations relevant t
o Cannabis in South Africa

Adams & Adams Crammer™ 2022 It’s getting hot in here: the effect of environmental sustainability on stakeholders

Adams & Adams Crammer™ 2022 Funding I.P. and R&D


Breakaway Room 2

Adams & Adams Crammer™ 2022 Security is a priority, not an option: outlook of insurance landscape post the storm

Adams & Adams Crammer™ 2022 Robots Inventing

Adams & Adams Crammer™ 2022 The Hype about the Meta Verse


Breakaway Room 3 

Adams & Adams Crammer™ 2022 For the love of Chicken!

Adams & Adams Crammer™ 2022 Do you know who owns the copyright to your house?

Adams & Adams Crammer™ 2022 The influence of data protection and privacy law on mergers and acquisitions


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Wednesday, 11 May 2022

Afro Leo

The art of sharing: 10 tips for writing blog posts and newsletters

Sharing information on just about anything, particularly an esoteric subject like intellectual property in Africa is so important because it creates awareness, educates, and ultimately stimulates the market and interest in that subject. For the sharer or writer, the exercise is a worthwhile investment; it improves writing skills, understanding, profile, networks, work generation and can be quite cathartic. Yet, the way in which information is shared plays an important role in maximising the return on that investment. Here are 10 tips for improving blog posts and newsletters. 


1.      Focus on what’s important, upfront

What is the main thrust of the article, news report or clip that you want to share? Incorporate this in the first para to your post or intro, either through a quote from the article or in your own words.

Example: TYPO has recently released its findings on the success of the FORGOTTO system. According to the report “66% of users applying for applications find it time consuming and frustrating” ….

2.      Summarise the content or what is covered by the article

The purpose of your share is to introduce and then give the reader more information on what the article is about. Your post or content should be able to stand alone as a summary of what is contained in the article, inviting the reader to research further by reading the article. In this way, it should function as an executive summary with an option to link to the article for further reading. Use headings, subheadings and bullet points to make it simple and concise.

This section, often a second para, could read: [subheading] The TYPO report canvasses the entire application process including application, publication, and registration. It also covers user feedback on pricing and a useful comparative report against user feedback on the LEKKA system as well as the following: [bullet points]. In general, FORGOTTO is not as functional or useful as the LEKKA system, according to the report. You can read more about the findings here (link).

3.       Add value: ask a question or give an opinion or add additional information

Everyone can share but the difference between an aggregator and a thought leader is the value they then add. It needn’t be profound or lengthy. Often, just a question or statement on the article is sufficient for the reader to start thinking more deeply about what he or she is reading.

Example: One wonders if the FORGOTTO system was electronic and had a dedicated helpline, the experience of the user would be improved (blog post) or we are assisting FORGOTTO create a more user-friendly application system by offering them IT support training and user support (newsletter).

4.      Add value: provide further information, links, and sources

Your opinion does not sit in a vacuum and itself can lead to debate, discussion, or contemplation. Invite the reader to other sources on the topic. Not only does this give them the impression that you are well read (giving gravitas to your question or view) but it creates trust and a deeper understanding to the topic.

You can read more about this development here and here (with links). In this article (link), the findings of the TYPO report are celebrated, and this article (link) advocates for a paper-based system for the FORGOTTO initiative.

For more tips on blog writing click here.

5.      Treat news articles and even those from law firms, with caution

Try to quote and share from credible sources. Fact-check articles you link to as much as possible. Time is often a problem so use common sense, read critically, and adopt a third-party stance using quotes, if in doubt.

This article from ADOPT & ADOPT reports that “80% of IP rights holders have enforced their rights in Africa” and then don’t be afraid to question the statement. This statistic does seem high given the 2018 ELIO report (link) which gave a low score to user confidence on the enforceability of IP rights on the continent (see 3 above).

6.      Link to articles and content in the correct way

This indicates respect and of course would be particularly ironic for a law firm or lawyer to err on. This means using quotes, linking to the article, and acknowledging the author. It also means quoting only what is necessary (see 1 above) for the purpose of the post or content. Be aware that photographs may have different copyright owners and you may not be able to determine who owns the copyright in a photograph. In this situation rather do not use the picture (see 9 below).

You can read the full article authored by Munchkin & Munchkin here (link).

7.      Be consistent if quoting different styled texts

Sometimes a blog post or newsletter requires linking and commenting on a variety of articles written in different styles. The important aspect here is to be consistent in how your report, share and comment on them. The way in which you use dates, currency, quotes, and the style of comment should be consistent. For a firm newsletter, it is often quite factual and professional. For a blog post, it may be that you can have more of a personal touch (indeed, that can add value and create interest). If you use currency, try to convert it to one which your audience will understand e.g., dollars, if international.  

8.      Plain English please

No latin (court aquo, causa, mero motu, verbatim, dies non, quid pro quo, bona fide, inter alia). No jargon unless the meaning is clear from the context (the matter, confusing similarity, the registrar, class 31, the bench, appellant). No proper nouns unless they are proper nouns or defined (judge, intellectual property rights, applicant, appellant, court). No redundant words or phrases (in order to, in relation to, in respect of, true facts, small in size, consensus of opinion, past history). Avoid Shakespearian words (hereinafter, herein, wherefore etc). Generally, one sentence one thought. No cliches (live to fight another day, can of worms and … my favourite – “be that as it may” comma).

9.      Headings and pictures are important

[licensed on a free to use basis]

Headings and pictures capture the reader. It is these two features of the content that get replicated on social media, in aggregated content and are most likely to attract interest. Choose them carefully and only after the post is written. Rather delay a post for decent picture than publish it without one but be copyright aware (see 6).

10.  Be authentic

Authenticity and true sharing will develop trust and readership. Although self-congratulation is frowned upon, done appropriately it can develop a following and add to authenticity. Don’t be afraid to congratulate others, even competitors where it is due. Tag authors whose content you have used and be true to your objective, which should be a service to the client or community – in this case you!

E.g., I sincerely hope these ten tips have been helpful. They are not made up I can assure you! They are inspired by reader criticism measured in over 1 million pageviews of over 1000 posts and articles written by yours truly on Afro-IP, IP Finance, Oxford University Press, World Trademark Review, firm blogs and other publications - the output of a labour of love over many years. And now shared with you, with love.

Afro Leo

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Thursday, 17 March 2022

Darren Olivier

South Africa: Not so good for the SOUL

A recent feast on three fast food decisions of the South African High Courts has, unfortunately, been a very underwhelming experience. Golden Fried Chicken, owners of the well know local Chicken Licken franchises sought to enforce their SOUL registered trade marks against three different uses in three different divisions of the local High Courts:

In each of the three divisions, the primary infringement claim was rejected. Where a counter claim was raised against the descriptive nature of SOUL (as in e.g. soul food), the argument was found to have some merit but nonetheless rejected, and there was even a finding that the mark SOUL was well known for the purposes of dilution (which was then summarily dismissed). 

It should be appreciated that all three cases were brought on trade mark infringement grounds alone, and did not include passing off and unlawful competition, yet in all three cases, the court erred in the basic application of the infringement test by comparing the use made by Chicken Licken with the offending use i.e. a passing off type test, in finding that a likelihood of confusion did not exist between the marks. 

The high oil mark, so to speak, is the final paragraph in the Kwazulu Natal case where the judge introduced the concept of “ubuntism” (the spirit of humanity) by suggesting that Chicken Licken, should, in the national interest, encourage rather than restrain use of SOUL, and that small businesses should be protected from trade mark infringement claims of larger organisations! 

Whether or not you agree that any single proprietor should have exclusivity to SOUL for restaurant services or food, the reality is that, absent a successful or part cancellation claim, Chicken Licken have registered trade marks for the full gamut of “restaurant services” (which includes Greek restaurant services, café services and kitchen services) that attracts certain rights. These rights are to be able to stop identical and confusingly similar marks. On a basic application of the infringement tests SOUL SOUVLAKI, OH MY SOUL and SOUL KITCHEN (including logo marks) are simply, dead meat and should be capable of being stopped.

Why then were the judges so reluctant to grant the interdicts. Was it because Chicken Licken was too aggressive and corporate against likeable cottage style eateries? Was it because exclusivity in SOUL just feels wrong? Was it because the infringement test as constructed and set out in Plascon Evans (SA leading case) and others, easily leads to conflation and confusion, especially for judges who do not adjudicate trade mark cases on a consistent basis.

One gets the sense that the answer to all of these questions may have been “yes” because in some places, the findings are difficult to reconcile and in other places just downright wrong. But, in my humble opinion, the answer to the final question is the most emphatic “yes!”. If one takes the time, in the pleadings and the judgement, to break down the Plascon Evans test into its individual components and apply them step-by-step (an approach long advocated by this blog - see here), the chances of tossing the equivalent of a frozen chicken leg into super hot oil in a trade mark judgement, are reduced significantly. 

  • Link to my notes with references to S35 tests, a breakdown of their application and a high level summary of where the judges erred.
  • Afro-IP's coverage of the SOULSA decision in 2009.

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Tuesday, 9 November 2021

Afro Leo

Six Steps for Value Creation in Heritage Brands

From a legal perspective we know that brands are protected by a number of different laws including copyright, trade mark, design and even personality rights where, for example, the brand is linked to people. We know too that under these laws the legal owner has several rights that are linked to monetary consideration, compensation, or penalties. These include rights to costs, damages, reasonable royalties, accounts of profit and fines. This creates an economic market for these rights that can be traded, licensed, pledged and leveraged.

A heritage brand is a type of brand that is linked to culture which could be linked to language, tradition, or physical objects such as buildings or artefacts. In legal terms a heritage is linked to a property right that may be inherited or passed from one generation to the next. A brand, of course, is more than a distinguishing feature of a product or service, it is experiential in that it evokes meaning and feeling in those that encounter it. Heritage brands are therefore potentially very powerful and valuable to those who control them, both legally and intrinsically.

Africa is abundant in heritage. Its multiplicity of languages, traditions and ancient foundations mean that heritage, as a resource, is omnipresent. By attaching or symbolizing that heritage to and in a brand there are obvious opportunities for value creation. This value can simply be the control of that heritage for future generations, or it could be leveraged to create revenue streams. The value creation is protected and created, in a legal sense, largely through intellectual property laws.

Business has long recognized Africa’s potential for value creation in its heritage. From blockbuster films to hospitality, fashion and motor vehicles using or reflecting African culture and heritage, our worldwide consumer culture is replete with examples of these types of products and services. In most of these examples, local communities derive little or no benefit apart from the flattery that exists in such use and in some cases, the lack of control over such use threatens the very existence and fabric of their heritage. However, the astute business has managed to form partnerships with local communities to enhance the value of the brand and ensure its sustainability. For stakeholders, there are therefore good reasons to understand the potential value of heritage brands and their use.

Here are six steps towards protecting and controlling the value of heritage in a brand:

Audit the heritage: analyze the heritage through the lens of intellectual property to determine which features are protectable.

Rank and bank the rights: this involves understanding the costs and benefit of the protection, the international agreements for reciprocal protection of such rights and how the features in the audit can be used to cost effectively harness and capture the rights.

Identify the business model you wish to use: licensing, endorsing, certification, accreditation and enforcement models are all potentially available to you.

Ensure value creation for the community: this step requires patience, education and building trust. It also requires the delivery of real value to the community that is transparent and accountable.

Structure the venture: the structure needs to be efficient, protective of the IP, attractive to stakeholders (the public and potential funders) and transparent to achieve legitimacy. It requires good skill sets in each aspect of the delivery.

Communicate effectively: Governing, reporting and leadership are all very important in ultimate value creation.

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Wednesday, 15 September 2021

Afro Leo


In the recent case of iCollege (Pty) Ltd (iCollege) v Excellence Skills Development and Mentoring (Expertease Skills) and ZA Central Registry NPC (Domain Name Registry), iCollege (Pty) Ltd sued Expertease Skills for trade mark infringement and passing off for their use of the mark ICOLLEGE, and requested the transfer of the domain name from the Domain Name Registry. The citation of the Domain Name Registry is a mechanism for enforcement of the judgment, and they did not take part in proceedings.

It is apparent from the decision that the High Court, in dismissing the claim, has still not got to grips with the proper application of the trade mark infringement tests, and this post will focus on these errors and omissions and once again appeal to the court and legal practitioners to adopt and follow the step-by-step approach used in Europe (see earlier posts here, here and here) as it will help reduce errors in application. The majority of the decision surrounds the trade mark infringement claim under S34(1)(a) and so this post focuses on that.

The claim for passing off and Section 34(1)(b) and (c) are not dealt with in any detail and are abruptly dismissed as the Section 34(1)(a) claim was not successful, albeit that there are also obvious errors in this part of the judgement (for example at para 69 it states – “The test for passing off with regards to section 34(1)(c) is set out by the court in Laugh It Off Promotions”).

Facts and findings

iCollege provides accredited and skills-based training with the Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) at its 17 campuses nationwide and at an e-learning centre. It is the registered proprietor of two device trade marks for iCollege covering education and training services applied for in 2013 and 2018. The 2018 mark is the colour mark as indicated in the table below.

At para 4 the judge makes a finding that iCollege has made “continuous and extensive use” of the trade mark since 2013.

Expertease Skills is an internet-based business that provides E-Learning courses to consumers located worldwide for international, technology vendor specific information technology certifications. It uses the marks illustrated in the table below.


In dismissing the iCollege’s the High Court in Pretoria made the following findings:

Comparison of the services (paras16-26)

“From the papers it would thus seem that the main similarity between the business of the applicant and the respondent is merely the fact that both render services in relation to “education and training services” (I have already pointed out that the applicant’s trade mark is registered in relation to, inter alia, “education and training services.”) However, in my view, it does not follow that the mere fact that both parties render “educational and training services” would mean that they in fact render the same or similar educational and training services, nor does it follow that the target market for these services (the potential notional customer) is the same (para 26). This sentiment is repeated at para 39.

Whilst the judge is correct that the two parties do not provide the same services, she confuses the test of passing off for that of trade mark infringement. For trade mark infringement purposes the services are identical in that they are both education and training services or, put differently, the services covered by iCollege’s trade mark are wide enough to cover those in respect of which Xpertease Skills uses their trade marks. This is a critical error.

Comparison of marks (paras 48-55)

Trade mark infringement was pleaded under all provisions of Section 34 and the test is the same for each of the infringements contemplated by that section. What is required of the judge is to make finding as to whether the marks are identical, similar or different. If the marks are different, the test stops there – there can be no infringement.

In this case, as Xpertease Skills uses a different mark to that which is registered, the marks are obviously, not identical. The question then is if they are not different, they must be similar and what that level of similarity is. Importantly, for this part of the test, the judge should not determine whether there is a likelihood of confusion. That would be premature as it involves the interplay of the other parts of the infringement tests e.g. similarity/identity of services, notional consumer, strength of the earlier mark etc.

Para 48-55 unfortunately misapplies the test for similarity of the marks and conflates it with other aspects of the tests for infringement. This makes it difficult to determine what the court’s conclusion is on the similarity of the marks. The test is also restricted to a comparison on the logo marks in use and appears to ignore the fact that Xpertease Skills also use the word mark on its own. This would reduce visual difference in the marks.

At para 50 the judge finds that “but for the word iCollege / ICOLLEGE, the two marks are not, in my view, similar. The ultimate test however is, as stated by the court in Cowbell, whether, on comparison of the two marks, there is a likelihood of confusion”. Perhaps by this the judge is saying that the marks are only similar in that they include the word iCollege, and that the rest of her analysis focusses on that. However, even this liberal reading of the reasoning it does not make sense because it fails to then draw on the conclusion on the similarity/identity of the goods in assessing the likelihood of confusion.

There are also other errors such as the determination of “material link” para 54. The term material link as used in the context of the Verimark case cited in the judgement, and in Europe is there to determine whether the use of the trade mark by the alleged infringer is trade mark use (as opposed to pure incidental or descriptive use) and in the dilution test. In this case it is trite that both parties are using iCollege as a trade mark and so the concept of ‘material link” under S34(1)(a) is met. It is use of a mark by the alleged infringer in the course of trade in the provision of educational services.

Notional Consumer (paras 56 – 65)

The penultimate finding under trade mark infringement is at para 63 and illustrates that if there is a problem in the application of part of the test, it perpetuates itself:

“ Apart from the fact that the applicant placed no evidence before the court to substantiate a likelihood of confusion within the context of this matter, I am not persuaded that any customer would be confused into believing that the educational services presented by the respondent are somehow linked to the applicant. I have already pointed out that there are material differences between the content of the courses presented by the parties as well as their respective teaching methods. The common element of the marks (“college” or the composite mark “icollege”) is, at best, weak in that it is, as already pointed out, descriptive of the educational vehicle both parties use to offer their educational services. The mark does not describe the applicant’s or respondent’s educational services. In fact, the trade mark does not tell the potential customer anything about the product. As such, the trademarks do not serve as a badge of origin of the educational services it presents. Adding the prefix “i” (composite mark) also does nothing more than to refer to the internet.”

The evidence to substantiate a likelihood of confusion for trade mark infringement purposes is through the application of the applicable test. Whilst it may be said that more evidence could have better served iCollege’s case, there cannot be said to be “no evidence”  (for example, iCollege’s registration certificates are evidence of their rights). Furthermore the conclusions on likelihood of confusion are more appropriate to a passing off test.

The correct conclusions based on what is in the judgement in this case, appear to be better summarised as follows:

a.) the marks are similar if not highly similar in that they consist of the identical components “iCollege” which are a material part of the marks in the sense that they are the only verbal component, and visually prominent. They are also conceptually identical insofar as a meaning can be ascribed to them. The judge does conclude that the marks are at least similar.

b.) the services are identical in that those offered by Xpertease Skills are covered by the trade mark registrations. The judge acknowledges this but appears the be confused by the test of passing off which compares services in use.

c.) the marks have been “continuously and extensively” used (concluded in para 4) but are not well known. The marks consist of the descriptive words “college” and “I” for “internet” which are not strong components of the mark.  Portions of the registered mark(s) (eg COLLEGE and I meaning INTERNET) is/are therefore relatively weak mark inherently. However, as iCollege’s marks has/have been used over almost ten years it has elevated their distinctiveness. In layman’s terms, not as strong as the iPhone mark but still a protectable mark and, of course, it is registered. On balance one may say that that iCollege’s mark is deserving of ordinary protection.

d.) the consumer (of educational and training services) is an ordinary consumer including those seeking educational services online. Those seeking educational services online may have a heightened level of awareness referred to in YuppieChef and may be more discerning.

e.) there is trade mark use of iCollege by the alleged infringer (as opposed to non trade mark use or incidental use). It is unauthorized.

So, based on the judgement, we have unauthorised trade mark use of a similar (if not highly similar) mark applied to identical services covered by the registered trade mark offered to an ordinary consumer seeking educational services online, who can be discerning.

In order come to the finding that the court did, it would need be convinced that there are material differences in the marks or that the consumer is so discerning that they would not likely be confused. I am not convinced that there are material differences in the marks or that the consumer is that discerning, but then who am I. My point is that had the court  applied the test in this way (or perhaps had the papers have been pleaded in this way), the court would not make the mistakes highlighted above, be less open to an appeal and, if there was an appeal, the basis for the appeal would be clearer. It would make for greater clarity, expediency and clarity all round.

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